Jumper (Maximist) Molakans

A radical offshoot of Russian Spiritual Christians known for ecstatic worship practices and fervent millenarian beliefs.


Religion: Christianity
Denomination: Molokan
Founder: Maxim Rudomyotkin (key figure)
Founded: 19th Century
Location: Russia, United States (especially California and Arizona)
Offshoot of: Russian Orthodox Church
Other Names: Maximists, Jumpers, Leapers, Molokan Spiritual Christians


The Jumper (Maximist) Molokans are a distinct and radical branch of the Molokans, a spiritual Christian sect that emerged in Russia during the 18th century. The Molokans diverged from the Russian Orthodox Church, primarily due to their rejection of the Orthodox rituals and ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Jumper Molokans, or Maximists, further distinguished themselves with unique practices and beliefs, emphasizing millenarianism and ecstatic worship.

Origins and Early History

The Jumper Molokans originated in the early 19th century as part of the larger Molokan movement. The Molokans themselves arose as a reaction against the Russian Orthodox Church’s rigid liturgies and the corruption perceived within the Church hierarchy. They emphasized a return to the practices and spirit of early Christianity, focusing on the inner spirituality and direct reading of the Bible.

The Jumpers or Maximists emerged as a more zealous faction within the Molokan community. They were particularly influenced by the teachings and prophecies of Maxim Rudometkin, who became a central figure in the development of this group. Rudometkin emphasized the imminent arrival of the Millennium and the need for a more fervent and spiritual form of worship.

Beliefs and Practices

The Jumper Molokans are distinguished by their energetic and ecstatic worship services, which involve jumping, dancing, and vocal manifestations of spiritual ecstasy. This form of worship was seen as a way to attain direct communion with the Holy Spirit. Their services often lacked a structured liturgy, focusing instead on spontaneous expressions of faith.

Key to the Jumper Molokan belief system is the idea of Chiliasm or millenarianism. They held a strong conviction that the end of the world was near and that they would play a pivotal role in the unfolding of these eschatological events. This belief often led to a sense of separation from the broader society, as they awaited divine intervention and the establishment of God’s kingdom on Earth.

Migration and Settlement

In response to persecution and in search of religious freedom, many Molokans, including the Jumpers, emigrated from Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A significant number settled in the United States, particularly in California and Arizona. These communities maintained their distinct religious practices while also adapting to their new environments.

Community Structure and Leadership

The Jumper Molokans maintained a communal and egalitarian structure, with a strong emphasis on mutual aid and collective worship. Leadership within the community was not based on a formal clergy but rather on spiritual elderhood. Elders were respected for their spiritual insight and ability to lead the community in accordance with God’s will, as interpreted through the Bible and the Holy Spirit’s guidance.

Modern Developments

In the modern context, Jumper Molokan communities have experienced various degrees of change and adaptation. Some have retained their traditional practices and beliefs, while others have assimilated more into mainstream society. The legacy of their unique form of worship and millenarian beliefs continues to be a defining characteristic of these communities.