A theological movement from the 4th century, challenging asceticism and advocating for the equality of marriage and celibacy in the Christian faith.
Jovinianism emerged in the 4th century as a theological stance opposing extreme asceticism within Christianity. This movement was based on the teachings of Jovinian, a theologian who critiqued the monastic movement and argued for the equality of marital and celibate life.
Historical Context and Spread
Originating in Rome and Milan, Jovinianism was a reaction against the ascetic tendencies prevalent in early Christianity. Jovinian, along with his followers like Sarmatio and Barbatianus, propagated ideas that were at odds with the dominant ascetic practices. The movement was quickly condemned by two synods, one in Rome and another in Milan, leading to Jovinian’s expulsion and eventual banishment by Emperor Honorius. Despite this condemnation, Jovinianism might have persisted in some form in secluded regions like the Alps.
Jovinian’s teachings challenged several orthodox beliefs of the time. He argued against the perpetual virginity of Mary and emphasized that all sins are equal, with a single level of punishment and reward in the afterlife. Jovinian posited that a person baptized in the Spirit as well as in water cannot sin and that abstinence holds no superiority over the partaking of food with the right disposition.
A central tenet of Jovinianism was the equivalence of marriage and celibacy. Jovinian used various New Testament teachings to validate the sanctity of marriage, countering the then-popular belief that an ascetic lifestyle led to greater spiritual merit. He cited scriptures like 1 Timothy 5:14, which encourages younger widows to remarry, and Hebrews 13:4, which honors marriage.
Impact and Criticism
Jovinian’s views were met with significant criticism from contemporary church leaders. Saint Jerome, in particular, wrote extensively against Jovinianism, defending asceticism and the higher spiritual status of virginity. Jerome’s rebuttals were known for their harsh language and formed a substantial part of the ecclesiastical literature of the period.
The movement also touched upon the doctrine of baptism. Jovinian asserted that baptism placed believers in a state where the blessings received are not diminished by the presence of sin. This perspective suggested a form of eternal security for the baptized, a view that later resonated with some Protestant doctrines.